• The course deals with the fundamentals of analytical chemistry and principles of electrochemical analysis of drugs


  • Upon completion of the course student shall be able to
  • understand the principles of volumetric and electro chemical analysis
  • carryout various volumetric and electrochemical titrations
  • develop analytical skills

Course Content


  • Pharmaceutical Analysis – Definition and Scope
    • Different techniques of analysis
    • Methods of expressing concentration
    • Primary and secondary standards.
    • Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate
  • Errors
    • Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures
  • Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents, limit tests


Acid Base Titration

Theories of acid base indicators, classification of acid base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves

Non Aqueous Titration

Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl


Precipitation Titrations: 

  • Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified Volhard’s, Fajans method, estimation of sodium chloride.

 Complexometric Titration: 

  • Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium gluconate.


  • Principle and steps involved in gravimetric analysis. Purity of the precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of barium sulphate.

 Basic Principles, methods and application of diazotisation titration


 Redox Titrations 

  • Concepts of oxidation and reduction
  • Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications)

Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with potassium iodate


Electro-chemical Methods of Analysis


  • Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.


  • Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode),
  • Methods to determine end point of potentiometric titration and applications.


  • Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode, application.


Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)

  • H. Beckett & J.B. Stenlake’s, Practical Pharmaceutical Chemistry Vol I & II, Stahlone Press of University of London
  • I. Vogel, Text Book of Quantitative Inorganic analysis
  • Bentley and Driver’s Textbook of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
  • John H. Kennedy, Analytical chemistry principles
  • Indian Pharmacopoeia.

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