The course deals with the various physical and physico-chemical properties, and principles involved in dosage forms/formulations. Theory and practical components of the subject help the student to get a better insight into various areas of formulation research and development, and stability studies of pharmaceutical dosage forms.


Upon the completion of the course student shall be able to 1. Understand various physico-chemical properties of drug molecules in the designing the dosage forms 2. Know the principles of chemical kinetics & to use them for stability testing and determination of expiry date of formulations 3. Demonstrate use of physico-chemical properties in the formulation development and evaluation of dosage forms.

Course Content

UNIT-I                                                                                                                       10 Hours

Solubility of Drugs

Solubility expressions, mechanisms of solute solvent interactions, ideal solubility parameters, solvation & association, quantitative approach to the factors influencing solubility of drugs, diffusion principles in biological systems. Solubility of gas in liquids, solubility of liquids in liquids, (Binary solutions, ideal solutions) Raoult’s law, real solutions. Partially miscible liquids, Critical solution temperature and applications. Distribution law, its limitations and applications.

UNIT-II                                                                                                                      10 Hours

States of Matter and Properties of Matter

State of matter, changes in the state of matter, latent heats, vapour pressure, sublimation critical point, eutectic mixtures, gases, aerosols – inhalers, relative humidity, liquid complexes, liquid crystals, glassy states, solid- crystalline, amorphous & polymorphism.

Physico-Chemical Properties of Drug Molecules

Refractive index, optical rotation, dielectric constant, dipole moment, dissociation constant, determinations and applications

UNIT-III                                                                                                                    08 Hours

Surface and Interfacial Phenomenon

Liquid interface, surface & interfacial tensions, surface free energy, measurement of surface & interfacial tensions, spreading coefficient, adsorption at liquid interfaces, surface active agents, HLB Scale, solubilisation, detergency, adsorption at solid interface.

UNIT-IV                                                                                                                    08 Hours

Complexation and Protein Binding

Introduction, Classification of Complexation, Applications, methods of analysis, protein binding, Complexation and drug action, crystalline structures of complexes and thermodynamic treatment of stability constants.

UNIT-V                                                                                                                      07 Hours

pH, Buffers and Isotonic Solutions

Sorensen’s pH scale, pH determination (electrometric and calorimetric), applications of buffers, buffer equation, buffer capacity, buffers in pharmaceutical and biological systems, buffered isotonic solutions.


Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)

  1. Physical Pharmacy by Alfred Martin
  2. Experimental Pharmaceutics by Eugene, Parott.
  3. Tutorial Pharmacy by Cooper and Gunn.
  4. Stocklosam J. Pharmaceutical Calculations, Lea &Febiger, Philadelphia.
  5. Liberman H.A, Lachman C., Pharmaceutical Dosage forms, Tablets, Volume-1 to 3, MarcelDekkar Inc.
  6. Liberman H.A, Lachman C, Pharmaceutical Dosage forms. Disperse systems, volume 1, 2, 3. Marcel Dekkar Inc.
  7. Physical Pharmaceutics by Ramasamy C and Manavalan R.
  8. Laboratory Manual of Physical Pharmaceutics, C.V.S. Subramanyam, J. Thimma settee
  9. Physical Pharmaceutics by C.V.S. Subramanyam
  10. Test book of Physical Pharmacy, by Gaurav Jain & Roop K. Khar

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