Study of all categories of microorganisims especially for the production of alchol antibiotics, vaccines, vitamins enzymes etc..


 Upon completion of the subject student shall be able to;

  1. Understand methods of identification, cultivation and preservation of various microorganisms 2. To understand the importance and implementation of sterlization in pharmaceutical processing and industry
  2. Learn sterility testing of pharmaceutical products.
  3. Carried out microbiological standardization of Pharmaceuticals.
  4. Understand the cell culture technology and its applications in pharmaceutical industries.

Course Content

Unit I                                                                                                                          10 Hours

Introduction, history of microbiology, its branches, scope and its importance. Introduction to Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes Study of ultra-structure and morphological classification of bacteria, nutritional requirements, raw materials used for culture media and physical parameters for growth, growth curve, isolation and preservation methods for pure cultures, cultivation of anaerobes, quantitative measurement of bacterial growth (total & viable count). Study of different types of phase constrast microscopy, dark field microscopy and electron microscopy.

Unit II                                                                                                                         10 Hours

Identification of bacteria using staining techniques (simple, Gram’s &Acid fast staining) and biochemical tests (IMViC). Study of principle, procedure, merits, demerits and applications of physical, chemical gaseous,radiation and mechanical method of sterilization. Evaluation of the efficiency of sterilization methods.

Equipments employed in large scale sterilization. Sterility indicators.

Unit III                                                                                                                       10 Hours

Study of morphology, classification, reproduction/replication and cultivation of Fungi and Viruses. Classification and mode of action of disinfectants Factors influencing disinfection, antiseptics and their evaluation. For bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions Evaluation of bactericidal & Bacteriostatic. Sterility testing of products (solids, liquids, ophthalmic and other sterile products) according to IP, BP and USP.

Unit IV                                                                                                                       08 Hours

Designing of aseptic area, laminar flow equipments; study of different sources of contamination in an aseptic area and methods of prevention, clean area classification. Principles and methods of different microbiological assay. Methods for standardization of antibiotics, vitamins and amino acids. Assessment of a new antibiotic.

Unit V                                                                                                                         07 Hours

Types of spoilage, factors affecting the microbial spoilage of pharmaceutical products, sources and types of microbial contaminants, assessment of microbial contamination and spoilage. Preservation of pharmaceutical products using antimicrobial agents, evaluation of microbial stability of formulations. Growth of animal cells in culture, general procedure for cell culture, Primary, established and transformed cell cultures. Application of cell cultures in pharmaceutical industry and research.


Recommended Books (Latest Edition) 

  1. W.B. Hugo and A.D. Russel: Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Blackwell Scientific publications, Oxford London.
  2. Prescott and Dunn., Industrial Microbiology, 4 th edition, CBS Publishers & Distributors, Delhi.
  3. Pelczar, Chan Kreig, Microbiology, Tata McGraw Hill edn.
  4. Malcolm Harris, Balliere Tindall and Cox: Pharmaceutical Microbiology.
  5. Rose: Industrial Microbiology.
  6. Probisher, Hinsdill et al: Fundamentals of Microbiology, 9th ed. Japan
  7. Cooper and Gunn’s: Tutorial Pharmacy, CBS Publisher and Distribution.
  8. Peppler: Microbial Technology. 9. I.P., B.P., U.S.P.- latest editions.
  9. Ananthnarayan : Text Book of Microbiology, Orient-Longman, Chennai
  10. Edward: Fundamentals of Microbiology.
  11. N.K.Jain: Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Vallabh Prakashan, Delhi
  12. Bergeys manual of systematic bacteriology, Williams and Wilkins- A Waverly company

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