BP304T. PHARMACEUTICAL ENGINEERING

 

 Scope

This course is designed to impart a fundamental knowledge on the art and science of various unit operations used in pharmaceutical industry.

Objectives

Upon completion of the course student shall be able:

  • To know various unit operations used in Pharmaceutical industries.
  • To understand the material handling techniques.
  • To perform various processes involved in pharmaceutical manufacturing process.
  • To carry out various test to prevent environmental pollution.
  • To appreciate and comprehend significance of plant lay out design for optimum use of resources.
  • To appreciate the various preventive methods used for corrosion control in Pharmaceutical industries

Course Content

UNIT-I                                                                                                                       10 Hours

Flow of Fluids

Types of manometers, Reynolds number and its significance, Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications, Energy losses, Orifice meter, Venturimeter, Pitot tube and Rotometer.

Size Reduction

Objectives, Mechanisms & Laws governing size reduction, factors affecting size reduction, principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Hammer mill, ball mill, fluid energy mill, Edge runner mill & end runner mill.

Size Separation

Objectives, applications & mechanism of size separation, official standards of powders, sieves, size separation Principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Sieve shaker, cyclone separator, Air separator, Bag filter & elutriation tank.

UNIT-II                                                                                                                      10 Hours

Heat Transfer

Objectives, applications & Heat transfer mechanisms. Fourier’s law, Heat transfer by conduction, convection & radiation. Heat interchangers & heat exchangers

Evaporation

Objectives, applications and factors influencing evaporation, differences between evaporation and other heat process. principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Steam jacketed kettle, horizontal tube evaporator, climbing film evaporator, forced circulation evaporator, multiple effect evaporator& Economy of multiple effect evaporator.

Distillation

Basic Principles and methodology of simple distillation,flash distillation, fractional distillation, distillation under reduced pressure, steam distillation & molecular distillation

UNIT- III                                                                                                                   08 Hours

Drying

Objectives, applications & mechanism of drying process, measurements & applications of Equilibrium Moisture content, rate of drying curve. principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Tray dryer, drum dryer spray dryer, fluidized bed dryer, vacuum dryer, freeze dryer.

Mixing

Objectives, applications & factors affecting mixing, Difference between solid and liquid mixing, mechanism of solid mixing, liquids mixing and semisolids mixing. Principles, Construction, Working, uses, Merits and Demerits of Double cone blender, twin shell blender, ribbon blender, Sigma blade mixer, planetary mixers, Propellers, Turbines, Paddles & Silverson Emulsifier,

UNIT-IV                                                                                                                    08 Hours

Filtration

Objectives, applications, Theories & Factors influencing filtration, filter aids, filter medias. Principle, Construction, Working, Uses, Merits and demerits of plate & frame filter, filter leaf, rotary drum filter, Meta filter & Cartridge filter, membrane filters and Seidtz filter.

Centrifugation

Objectives, principle & applications of Centrifugation, principles, construction, working, uses, merits and demerits of Perforated basket centrifuge, Non-perforated basket centrifuge, semi continuous centrifuge & super centrifuge.

UNIT- V                                                                                                                     07 Hours

Materials of pharmaceutical plant construction, Corrosion and its prevention

Factors affecting during materials selected for Pharmaceutical plant construction, Theories of corrosion, types of corrosion and there prevention. Ferrous and nonferrous metals, inorganic and organic non metals, basic of material handling systems.

 

Recommended Books: (Latest Editions) 

  1. Introduction to chemical engineering – Walter L Badger & Julius Banchero, Latest edition.
  2. Solid phase extraction, Principles, techniques and applications by Nigel J.K. Simpson- Latest edition.
  3. Unit operation of chemical engineering – Mcabe Smith, Latest edition.
  4. Pharmaceutical engineering principles and practices – C.V.S Subrahmanyam et al., Latest edition.
  5. Remington practice of pharmacy– Martin, Latest edition.
  6. Theory and practice of industrial pharmacy by Lachmann., Latest edition.
  7. Physical pharmaceutics– C.V.S Subrahmanyam et al., Latest edition.
  8. Cooper and Gunn’s Tutorial pharmacy, S.J. Carter, Latest edition

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