The main purpose of subject is to impart the students the knowledge of how the secondary metabolites are produced in the crude drugs, how to isolate and identify and produce them industrially. Also this subject involves the study of producing the plants and phytochemicals through plant tissue culture, drug interactions and basic principles of traditional system of medicine


Upon completion of the course, the student shall be able

  • to know the modern extraction techniques, characterization and identification of the herbal drugs and phytoconstituents
  • to understand the preparation and development of herbal formulation.
  • to understand the herbal drug interactions
  • to carryout isolation and identification of phytoconstituents

Course Content

UNIT-I                                                                                                                           07 Hours

Metabolic pathways in higher plants and their determination

  • Brief study of basic metabolic pathways and formation of different secondary metabolites through these pathways- Shikimic acid pathway, Acetate pathways and Amino acid pathway.
  • Study of utilization of radioactive isotopes in the investigation of Biogenetic studies.

UNIT-II                                                                                                                          14 Hours

General introduction, composition, chemistry & chemical classes, biosources, therapeutic uses and commercial applications of following secondary metabolites:

Alkaloids: Vinca, Rauwolfia, Belladonna, Opium,

Phenylpropanoids and Flavonoids: Lignans, Tea, Ruta

Steroids, Cardiac Glycosides & Tri-terpenoids: Liquorice, Dioscorea, Digitalis

Volatile oils: Mentha, Clove, Cinnamon, Fennel, Coriander,

Tannins: Catechu, Pterocarpus

Resins: Benzoin, Guggul, Ginger, Asafoetida, Myrrh, Colophony

Glycosides: Senna, Aloes, Bitter Almond

Iridoids, Other terpenoids & Naphthaquinones: Gentian, Artemisia, taxus, carotenoids

UNIT-III                                                                                                                        06 Hours

Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Phytoconstituents

a) Terpenoids: Menthol, Citral, Artemisin

  1. b) Glycosides: Glycyrhetinic acid & Rutin
  2. c) Alkaloids: Atropine,Quinine,Reserpine,Caffeine
  3. d) Resins: Podophyllotoxin, Curcumin

UNIT-IV                                                                                                                         10 Hours

  • Industrial production, estimation and utilization of the following phytoconstituents:
    • Forskolin, Sennoside, Artemisinin, Diosgenin, Digoxin, Atropine, Podophyllotoxin, Caffeine, Taxol, Vincristine and Vinblastine

UNIT V                                                                                                                          08 Hours

Basics of Phytochemistry

  • Modern methods of extraction, application of latest techniques like Spectroscopy, chromatography and electrophoresis in the isolation, purification and identification of crude drugs.


Recommended Books: (Latest Editions)

  • C.Evans, Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy, 16th edition, W.B. Sounders & Co., London, 2009.
  • Mohammad Ali. Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, CBS Publishers & Distribution, New Delhi.
  • Text book of Pharmacognosy by C.K. Kokate, Purohit, Gokhlae (2007), 37th Edition, Nirali Prakashan, New Delhi.
  • Herbal drug industry by R.D. Choudhary (1996), Ist Edn, Eastern Publisher, New Delhi.
  • Essentials of Pharmacognosy, Dr.SH.Ansari, IInd edition, Birla publications, New Delhi, 2007
  • Herbal Cosmetics by H.Pande, Asia Pacific Business press, Inc, New Delhi.
  • N. Kalia, Textbook of Industrial Pharmacognosy, CBS Publishers, New Delhi, 2005.
  • R Endress, Plant cell Biotechnology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994.
  • Pharmacognosy & Pharmacobiotechnology. James Bobbers, Marilyn KS, VE Tylor.
  • The formulation and preparation of cosmetic, fragrances and flavours.
  • Remington’s Pharmaceutical sciences.
  • Text Book of Biotechnology by Vyas and Dixit.
  • Text Book of Biotechnology by R.C. Dubey.

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