(a) Pharmaceutical analysis – Definition and scope
i) Different techniques of analysis
ii) Methods of expressing concentration
iii) Primary and secondary standards.
iv) Preparation and standardization of various molar and normal solutions- Oxalic acid, sodium hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium thiosulphate, sulphuric acid, potassium permanganate and ceric ammonium sulphate
(b)Errors: Sources of errors, types of errors, methods of minimizing errors, accuracy, precision and significant figures
(c) Pharmacopoeia, Sources of impurities in medicinal agents, limit tests.
Acid-base titration: Theories of acid-base indicators, classification of acid-base titrations and theory involved in titrations of strong, weak, and very weak acids and bases, neutralization curves
Non aqueous titration: Solvents, acidimetry and alkalimetry titration and estimation of Sodium benzoate and Ephedrine HCl
Precipitation titrations: Mohr’s method, Volhard’s, Modified Volhard’s, Fajans method, estimation of sodium chloride.
Complexometric titration: Classification, metal ion indicators, masking and demasking reagents, estimation of Magnesium sulphate, and calcium
Gravimetry: Principle and steps involved in the gravimetric analysis. The purity of the precipitate: co-precipitation and post precipitation, Estimation of barium sulphate. Basic Principles, methods and application of diazotisation titration.
(a) Concepts of oxidation and reduction
(b) Types of redox titrations (Principles and applications)
Cerimetry, Iodimetry, Iodometry, Bromatometry, Dichrometry, Titration with potassium iodate
Electrochemical methods of analysis
Conductometry– Introduction, Conductivity cell, Conductometric titrations, applications.
Potentiometry – Electrochemical cell, construction and working of reference (Standard hydrogen, silver chloride electrode and calomel electrode) and indicator electrodes (metal electrodes and glass electrode), methods to determine the endpoint of potentiometric titration and applications.
Polarography – Principle, Ilkovic equation, construction and working of dropping mercury electrode and rotating platinum electrode, applications