Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT): Biotechnology Syllabus

The Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT), opens doors to infinite opportunities for students from pharmaceutical domain. GPAT is a National level entrance exam for admission into prestigious NIPERs and University colleges. Since 2009, the importance of GPAT has increased as the branch turned into a autonomous exam and separated from GATE (PY). The exam will be conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) from 2019, previously by AICTE under the guidance of MHRD, India.

Syllabus prescribed by NTA for GPAT includes BIOTECHNOLOGY is a minor subject with topics that are elaborated below.

BIOTECHNOLOGY

  • Plant Cell and Tissue Culture
    • Structure of plant cell, DNA, Genes and chromosomes.
    • Cell and tissue culture,
    • Requirements.
    • Callus culture, suspension culture, batch culture.
    • Concept of somatic hybridization, somatic embryogenesis.
    • Processes and applications,
    • Isolation and immobilization of enzymes and plant cells and application.
    • Protoplast and cell fusion.
    • Germ plasm conservation.
    • Production of secondary metabolites by plant tissue culture.
    • Gene transfer techniques.
  • Animal Cell Culture
    • Introduction to animal cell culture, medium used in ATC. Use of FCS, primary culture, secondary culture, cell line. Cloning: concept and application with technical hurdles. Transgenic animals as source of food, organs and tissues, concept of xeno transplant.
  • Fermentation Technology and Industrial Microbiology
    • Fermentation as biochemical process, types of fermentations.
    • Fermenter – working and construction, accessory components, modification.
    • Fermentation monitoring and in situ recovery of products.
  • Recombinant DNA Technology
    • Basic concepts
    • Introduction.
    • Role of restriction endonuclease, DNA ligase, DNA polymerase, Reverse transcriptase.
  • Process and Applications
    • Constructing Recombinant DNA molecules.
      •  DNA Clones sources of DNA for cloning.
      •  DNA vectors, role of expression vectors.
      •  Host cell for recombinant work.
      •  Method for screening and selecting transformants.
      •  Expression of foreign genes.
      •  Uses of recombinant DNA.
    • PCR and applications. Human gene therapy concept and applications.
    • Drug delivery systems in gene therapy.
  • Biotechnologv Derived Products
    • Sources and upstream processing.
      •  Introduction.
      •  Escherichia coli as a source of recombinant, therapeutic protein.
      •  Additional production systems,
      •  Yeast.
      •  Fungal production systems.
      •  Transgenic animals.
      •  Transgenic plants.
      •  Insects cell based systems.
      •  Upstream processing.
    • Downstream processing.
      •  Product analysis,
      •  Introduction.
      •  Protein -based contaminant.
      •  Removal of altered form of the protein of interest from the product stream.
      •  Determination of protein concentration.
    • Immunological approaches to detection of contaminant, Endotoxin and other pyrogenic contaminants.
      •  Pyrogen detection.
      •  DNA as contaminant.
      •  Microbial and viral contaminant.
      •  Viral assays.
      •  Miscellaneous contaminants.
      •  Validation studies.
    • d) Production and purification of recombinant proteins like, Insulin, Growth hormones, somatostatin, interferons, only examples of recombinant blood
  • Proteomics
    • Introduction,
    • Genomic study, structural and functional genomes, human genome project,
    • Technologies for Proteomics.
    • Protein identification, D-SDS-PAGE (1-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis).  Dimensional electrophoresis.
    • Applications of DNA and Protein Microarray Technology.
    • Pharmaceutical and Medical Application of Proteomic.
  • Formulation of Proteins and Peptides
    • Introduction.
    • Making Small Protein Particles: Precipitation of proteins from Supercritical Fluids.
    • Aseptic Assembly.
    • Quality Control Issues.
    • Lyophilization (Freeze-Drying).
    • Protein Compaction.

 

 

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