Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT): Microbiology Syllabus

The Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT), opens doors to infinite opportunities for students from pharmaceutical domain. GPAT is a National level entrance exam for admission into prestigious NIPERs and University colleges. Since 2009, the importance of GPAT has increased as the branch turned into a autonomous exam and separated from GATE (PY). The exam will be conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) from 2019, previously by AICTE under the guidance of MHRD, India.

Syllabus prescribed by NTA for GPAT includes MICROBIOLOGY is a minor subject with topics that are elaborated below.

MICROBIOLOGY

  • Introduction to Microbiology
    • Scope and application to pharmacy field. Whittaker’s Five Kingdom concept, historical development – biogenesis vs. a biogenesis, Germ theory of fermentation, Germ theory of disease, contribution of Leeuwenhoek, Robert Koch, Jenner, Louis Pasteur and Ehrlich.
  • Microscopy and Staining Technique
    • Principle, ray diagram, construction, working and applications of light compound, dark field, phase contrast, Fluorescence & electron microscope. Concept of resolving power, Magnification power, numerical aperture and angular aperture and working distance. Principle application of oil immersion microscopy. Theory of staining, principle and technique of staining procedure – Monochrome, Gram, acid fast, negative, capsule, endospore.
  • Biology of Microorganisms
    • Cultural characteristics, pure culture techniques
    • Bacteria – Morphology and fine structure of bacteria, Nutritional requirement and type of culture media, growth and growth curve of bacteria, physical condition for growth, measurement of bacterial growth (Counting Methods), Reproduction in bacteria, genetic exchange – transformation, conjugation, and transduction development of drug resistance by recombination and mutation, preservation of bacterial culture. Biochemical properties (sugar fermentation and IMVIC test).
    • Pathogenesis of staphylococcus, Mycobacterium. Salmonella Introductory study of disease causing rickettsia, importance of actinomycetes in antibiotic production.
  • Fungi and Viruses
    • Fungi :- Introduction, general characteristics, morphology, industrial and medical significance of Saccharomyces Cerevisae, Penicillium and Aspergillus, Candida Albicans, Epidermophyton, and trichophyta.
    • Viruses: – Introduction, structure and general properties Bacteriophages – Lytic and Lysogenic cycle, Epidemiological uses of Bacteriophages, human viruses – Cultivation and Multiplication virus host cell interaction, Pathogensis of HIV and Prions, types of Tumor viruses.
  • Aseptic Technique
    • Omnipresence of microorganisms, importance of asepsis, sources of contamination and methods of prevention, Principle, construction & working of laminar airflow bench.
  • Sterilization & Disinfection
    • Concept and classification, principle and methods of sterilization, Mechanisms of cell injury.
    • Construction working & applications of moist heat & dry heat sterilizer, gamma radiation sterilizer, filtration sterilizer. Indicators of sterilization, microbial death, kinetic terms-D value, z value.
    • Terminology of chemical antimicrobial Agents, Chemical classification of different disinfectants, characteristics of ideal disinfectants, factors affecting action of disinfectants, evaluation methods (RW Coeff.), Kelsey Sykes test, Chick Martin test.
  • Microbial Spoilage
    • Types of spoilage, factors affecting spoilage of pharmaceutical products.
  • Immunology and Health
    • Host parasite Relationship:
      • Normal microbial flora of human body, infection vs. disease, Pathogenicity vs. Virulence, Koch & Rivers Postulates, Reservoir of infection sources of infection, Portals of Entry, Portals of exit, vectors of infection, communicability of disease, recognized symptoms of microbial disease, classification of immunity.
      • External defense mechanism of host: Skin, Mucus membrane, chemical Secretions, Naturally occurring microbial flora.
      • Internal defense Mechanism: Inflammation, fever, natural killer Cells, Phagocytic Cells, Soluble mediators-complement Lymphokines, Interferons.
    • Immune response :
      •  Specific immunity & immune response
      •  Humoral immunity antibody response, mediators of Humoral immunity, basic structure of antibody, antibody classes & functions, maturation of immune response, immunologic memory.
      •  Antigens: specificity & Immunogenicity, Natural vs. artificial Antigens, Soluble, cellular antigens, thymus independent antigen, adjuvant.
    •  Hypersensitivity :
      •  Immediate-type or anaphylaxis (type I),
      •  Compliment mediated or cytolytic hypersensitivity (type II),
      •  Immune complex or arthrus hypersensitivity (type III),
      •  Delayed or cell mediated hypersensitivity (type IV).
    •  Cellular immunity:
      •  Transplantation immunity,
      •  Cellular immunity to viruses,
      •  Implications of T-cell response.
      •  Acquisition of specific immunity: Natural vs. Passive acquisition.
    • Practical aspects of immunity:
      • Measurement of humoral immunity (antibodies)-Precipitation tests
      • Agglutination tests, RIA, ELISA, immune fluorescence.
      • Production of monoclonal antibodies.
      • Measurement of cell mediated immunity – Intradermal tests, tests for migration, mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), Cell mediated toxicity (CMT).
  • Vaccines & Sera
    • Manufacturing (seed lot system) and quality control of bacterial vaccines & Toxoids (Tetanus, TAB, Cholera, BCG, DPT), Viral vaccine (Polio- Salk Sabin, Rabies, MMR, Hepatitis, Chickenpox, influenza), Antisera (diphtheria, tetanus), antiviral Antisera (rabies). Preparation of allergenic extracts & diagnostics.
  • Microbial Assay
    • Importance, general methods of assay of antibiotics (Cup & plate method, paper disc method, turbidometry, dilution method), methods for fungicidal & antiviral compounds, assay, microbial limit tests.

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