Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT): Pharmacology Syllabus

The Graduate Pharmacy Aptitude Test (GPAT), opens doors to infinite opportunities for students from pharmaceutical domain. GPAT is a National level entrance exam for admission into prestigious NIPERs and University colleges. Since 2009, the importance of GPAT has increased as the branch turned into a autonomous exam and separated from GATE (PY). The exam will be conducted by National Testing Agency (NTA) from 2019, previously by AICTE under the guidance of MHRD, India.

Syllabus prescribed by NTA for GPAT includes PHARMACOLOGY is a major subject with topics that are elaborated below.

ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY AND HEALTH EDUCATION

  • Cell Physiology
    • Cell, Cell junctions, transport mechanisms, homeostasis, ion channels, secondary messengers.
  • The Blood
    • Composition and functions of blood, RBC, WBC, platelets. Homeostasis, blood groups, mechanism of clotting. Introduction to disorders of blood.
  • Gastrointestinal Tract
    • Structure of the gastrointestinal tract, functions of its different parts including those of liver, pancreas and gall bladder, various gastrointestinal structures and their role in the digestion and absorption of food.
  • Respiratory System
    • Structure of respiratory organs, functions of respiration mechanism and regulation of respiration, respiratory volumes and vital capacity.
  • Autonomic Nervous System
    • Physiology and functions of the autonomic nervous system. Mechanism of neurohumoral transmission in ANS.
  • Sense Organs
    • Structure and physiology of eye (vision), ear (hearing), taste buds, nose (smell) and skin.
  • Skeletal System
    • Structure and function of skeleton. Articulation and movement. Disorders of bones and joints.
  • Central Nervous System
    • Functions of different parts of brain and spinal cord. Neurohumoral transmission in the  central nervous system, reflex action, electroencephalogram, specialized functions of thebrain, cranial nerves and their functions.
  • Urinary System
    • Various parts Structure and functions of the kidney and urinary tract. Physiology of urine formation and acid base balance. Brief Introduction to disorders of kidney.
  • Endocrine Glands
    • Basic anatomy and physiology of pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands and pancreas. Local hormones. Brief introduction to disorders of various endocrine glands.
  •  Reproductive System
    • Structure and functions of male and female reproductive system. Sex hormones, physiology of menstrual cycle, and various stages of pregnancy and parturition.
  • Cardio Vascular System
    • Anatomy of heart and blood vessels, physiology of blood circulation, cardiac cycle, conducting system of heart, heart sound, electrocardiogram, blood pressure and its regulation.
  • Lymphatic System
    • Composition, formation and circulation of lymph. Spleen and its functions.

PATHO-PHYSIOLOGY

  • Basic Principles of Cell injury and Adaptation
    • Causes, pathogenesis and morphology of cell injury. Abnormalities in lipoproteinemia, glycogen infiltration and glycogen storage disease.
  • Basic Mechanisms of Inflammation and Repair
    • Pathogeneses of inflammation. Chemical mediators in inflammation. Pathogenesis of chronic inflammation. Repair of wounds in the skin, factors influencing healing of wounds.
  • Hypersensitivity
    • Hypersensitivity type I, II, III, IV. Biological significance of hypersensitivity. Allergy due to food, chemicals and drugs.
  • Auto-immunity & diseases of immunity
    • Mechanism of autoimmunity. Classification of autoimmune diseases in man.
    • Transplantation and allograft reactions, mechanism of rejection of allograft. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Amylodosis.
  • Neoplastic diseases
    • Disturbances of growth of cells. General biology of tumors, differences between benign and malignant tumors. Classification of tumors. Historical diagnosis of malignancy.
    • Etiology and pathogenesis of cancer. Invasions, metastasis, patterns of spread of cancer. Environmental carcinogenesis.
  • Shock
    • Types, mechanisms, stages and management.
  • Biological effects of radiation
    • Nuclear radiation, UV, X-ray and other radiations.
  • Protein calorie malnutrition, vitamins, obesity. starvation
    • Deficiency of vitamins, study of various syndromes due to obesity and starvation.
  • Pathophvsiologv of Common Diseases
    • Parkinsonism. Schizophrenia. Depression and mania. Stroke (ischemic and hemorrhage). Hypertension. Angina. Myocardial infarction, CCF. Atherosclerosis.
    • Diabetes mellitus. Peptic ulcer and inflammatory bowel disease. Cirrhosis and alcoholic liver diseases. Acute and chronic renal failure. Asthma and chronic obstructive airway diseases.
  • Infectious Diseases
    • Hepatitis – Infective hepatitis. Sexually transmitted diseases (syphilis, gonorrhea, HIV). Pneumonia, typhoid, urinary tract infections. Tuberculosis. Leprosy. Malaria. Dysentery (Bacterial and amoebic).
    • Viral oncogenesis.

PHARMACOLOGY

  • General Pharmacology
    • Introduction to Pharmacology- Definition, scope and source of drugs, dosage form and routes of drug administration. Pharmacodynamics-Mechanism of drug action, Receptors, classification and drug receptors interaction, combined effect of drugs, factors modifying drug action.
    • Pharmacokinetics-Mechanism and principle of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion of drugs. Principles of basic and clinical pharmacokinetics. Pharmacogenetics. Adverse drug reactions.
    • Discovery and development of new drugs-Preclinical and clinical studies.
  • Pharmacology of Peripheral Nervous System
    • Neurohumoral transmission (Autonomic and somatic).
    • Parasympathomimetics, Parasympatholytics, Sympathomimetics, Sympatholytics, Ganglionic stimulants and blockers. Neuromuscular blocking agents and skeletal muscle relaxants (peripheral).
    • Local anesthetic agents. Drugs used in Myasthenia Gravis.
  • Pharmacology of Cardiovascular System
    • Introduction of hemodynamic and Electrophysiology of heart.
    • Anti-hypertensive drugs, Anti-anginal agents, Anti-arrhythmic drugs. Drugs used in congestive heart failure. Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs. Drugs used in the therapy of shock.
    • Haematinics, anticoagulants and haemostatic agents. Fibrinolytics and antiplatelet drugs. Blood and plasma volume expanders.
  • Drugs Acting on Urinary System
    • Diuretics and anti-diuretics.
  • Drugs acting on Respiratory System
    • Anti-asthmatic drugs, Mucolytics and nasal decongestants, Anti-tussives and expectorants. Respiratory stimulants
  • Pharmacology of Central Nervous System
    • Neurohumoral transmission in the C.N.S with special emphasis on Pharmacology of various neurotransmitters. General anesthetics. Alcohols and disulfiram. Sedatives, hypnotics and centrally acting muscle relaxants, Psychopharmacological agents: Antipsychotics, antidepressants, antianxiety agents, anti-manics and hallucinogens.
    • Anti-epileptic drugs. Anti-parkinsonism drugs. Nootropics.
    • Narcotic analgesics, drug addiction, drug abuse, tolerance and dependence.
  • Pharmacology of Endocrine System
    • Basic concepts in endocrine pharmacology. Hypothalamic and pituitary hormones.
    • Thyroid hormones and ant thyroid drugs, Parathormone, Calcitonin and vitamin-D. Insulin, oral hypoglycemic agents and glucagon. ACTH and corticosteroids. Androgens and anabolic steroids. Estrogens, progesterone and oral contraceptives. Drugs acting on the uterus.
  • Chemotherapy
    • General principals of chemotherapy. Sulphonamides and co-trimoxazole.
    • Antibiotics- Penicillins, cephalosporins, chloramphenicol, Macrolides, quinolines and fluoroquinolins, quinolones. Tetracyclines. Aminoglycosides and miscellaneous antibiotics. Chemotherapy of tuberculosis, leprosy, fungal diseases, viral diseases, AIDS, protozoal diseases, worm infections, urinary tract infections and sexually transmitted diseases.
    • Chemotherapy of malignancy.
  • Autacoids and their Antagonists
    • Histamine, 5-HT and their antagonists.
    • Prostaglandins, thromboxanes and leukotrienes. pentagastrin, cholecystokinin, angiotensin, bradykinin and substance P. Analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory and anti-gout drugs.
  • Pharmacology of drug acting on the Gastrointestinal Tract
    • Antacids, anti-secretary and antiulcer drugs.
    • Laxatives and antidiarrheal drugs. Appetite stimulants and suppressants. Digestants and carminatives. Emetics and antiemetics.
  • Chronopharmacology
    • Definition of rhythm and cycles. Biological clock and their significance leading to chronotherapy.
  • Immnopharmacology
    • Immunostimulants and immunosuppressants.
  • Chemotherapy of Malignant Diseases
    • Basic principal of chemotherapy. Drugs used in cancer chemotherapy.
  • Peptides and proteins as mediators
    • General Principal of peptide pharmacology Biosynthesis and regulation of peptides Peptide antagonists. Protein and peptide as drugs.
  •  Nitric oxide
    • Biosynthesis of nitric oxide and its physiological role.
    • Therapeutic use of nitric oxide and nitric oxide donors. Clinical condition in which nitric oxide may play a part.
  • Vitamins & Minerals
    • Vitamin deficiency diseases and their management. Role of minerals in health & diseases.
  • Principles of Toxicology
    • Definition of poison. General principles of treatment of Poisoning. Treatment of poisoning due to Heavy metals, insecticides, opioids and other addict forming drugs. Study of acute, sub acute and chronic toxicity as per OECD guidelines. Genotoxicity, Carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and mutagenicity studies.

CLINICAL PHARMACY AND THERAPEUTICS

  • General Principles, preparation, maintenance, analysis of observational records in clinical Pharmacy.
  • Clinical trials, type and phases of clinical trials, placebo, ethical and regulatory issues including Good clinical practice in clinical trials.
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring, adverse drug reaction (ADR), types of ADR, Mechanism of ADR. Drug interaction, Monitoring and reporting of ADR and its significance.
  • Drug information services, Drug interactions.
  • Drug interaction in pediatric and geriatric patients, drug treatment during pregnancy, lactation and menstruation.
  • Pharmacovigilance, Therapeutic drug monitoring, Neutraceuticals, essential drugs and rational drug usage.
  • Age related drug therapy: concept of posology, drug therapy for neonates, pediatrics and geriatrics. Drugs used in pregnancy and lactation.
  • Drug therapy in gastrointestinal, hepatic, renal, cardiovascular and respiratory Disorders.
  • Drug therapy for neurological and psychological disorders.
  • Drug therapy in infections of respiratory system, urinary system, infective meningitis, TB, HIV, malaria and filaria.
  • Drug therapy for thyroid and parathyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, menstrual cycle disorders, menopause and male sexual dysfunction.
  • Drug therapy for malignant disorders like leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumors.
  • Drug therapy for rheumatic, eye and skin disorders.

Related Articles

Responses

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

error: Content is protected !!